Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Students in Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Sciences develop a comprehensive grasp of principles as well as an ability to think critically and creatively. Formal instruction places an emphasis on fundamental principles, processes, and recent developments, using lecture, seminar, laboratory, colloquium, and field trip formats. Undergraduates as well as graduate students have opportunities to carry out research in current fields of interest.

The principal research fields of the department are geochemistry, mineral physics, igneous petrology; geophysics, structural geology, tectonophysics; environmental science, hydrology; paleoceanography, paleoclimatology, sedimentology; and planetary geosciences. Emphasis in these different areas varies, but includes experimental, theoretical, and observational approaches as well as applications to field problems. Field studies of specific problems are encouraged rather than field mapping for its own sake. Interdisciplinary study with other departments and divisions is encouraged.

For additional information, please visit the department's website: http://www.brown.edu/academics/earth-environmental-planetary-sciences/

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GEOL 0010. Face of the Earth.

Study of Earth's surface (e.g., mountains, rivers, shorelines) and processes which have created and modify it (e.g., glaciation, floods, volcanism, plate tectonics, earthquakes). The goals are to increase appreciation and enjoyment of our natural surroundings and provide a better understanding of environmental problems, natural resources, land use, and geologic hazards. Four labs, plus a field trip. For nonscience concentrators (science concentrators should take GEOL 0220). Students MUST register for both components of this course (the lecture and one of the labs) during the SAME registration session. Enrollment limited to 100.

Spr GEOL0010 S01 25581 MWF 1:00-1:50(06) (R. Cooper)
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GEOL 0030. Climate and Climate Change.

This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of the climate system on Earth, changes in Earth's climate over time, and interactions between climate change and human society. Topics will include: global energy balance; the structure, composition and role of the atmosphere and oceans; the influence of the global carbon cycle on climate; the social, economic and political drivers of human perturbations to the carbon cycle; and societal vulnerability, resilience and adaptive capacity in the face of environmental changes. No prerequisites; course open to all levels. WRIT

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GEOL 0050. Mars, Moon, and the Earth.

Space exploration has revealed an astonishing array of surface features on the planets and their satellites. Why are atmospheres on the planets different from Earth's atmosphere? Do other planets represent our past or future environment? Is there life on other planets? The planets and their histories are compared to gain insight and a new perspective on planet Earth.

Fall GEOL0050 S01 16754 MWF 2:00-2:50(07) (J. Mustard)
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GEOL 0070. Introduction to Oceanography.

Examines the ocean's role in global (and local) change, emphasizing the ocean as an evolving, dynamically balanced ecosystem. Focus on physical/chemical/biological systems' interconnections needed to understand the natural variability of the ocean on various time and space scales, from El Niño to global warming. Three lectures, one section meeting weekly; written exercises on oceanographic problems; two field trips to study estuarine and coastal processes.

Spr GEOL0070 S01 25575 MWF 2:00-2:50(07) (S. Clemens)
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GEOL 0160B. Global Change: Ecology and Climate.

Examines ways in which global change will affect ecosystems, considering how temperature, rainfall, and land use can modify the distribution of organisms in the future, and reduce biodiversity. Examine how biotic feedbacks to global change can modify climate change through their effects on the carbon cycle, absorption of sunlight at the land surface, and retention of water in soils. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160C. Global Environmental Change.

Examination of evidence that supports or refutes various perspectives on global environmental change, with a foundation in the principles that govern the fundamental underlying processes. Example topics include climate change (warming, cooling, neutral), population growth (how many, how fast), and loss of natural resources (diversity). Topics explored through selected readings from the natural and social sciences. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160D. Living Within the Landscape.

Physical processes that shape the Earth's surface provide an inescapable context for human activity. We will examine the physical principles that govern erosion and sedimentation, slope stability, river and coastal flooding, and groundwater flow, and analyze how these processes affect land-use philosophies and decision-making. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160E. Volcanos, Windows into the Deep Earth.

Examines the physical and chemical principles controlling the generation of volcanoes and their different styles of eruption. Investigates where and why volcanoes occur, and what volcanic lavas can tell us about the composition and evolution of the Earth and other planets. Evaluates volcanic hazards and the economic benefits and cultural aspects of volcanism. Two-day field trip. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160F. Patterns: in Nature, in Society.

The shapes of plants and animals, of mountains and shorelines arise because nature dissapates energy as rapidly as possible. These morphological patterns allow description of the "energy" landscape that produced them. Societies and economies show temporal and spatial patterns as well; does the "flow rate" of ideas and of money cause these patterns? We will explore just how "entropy rules." CAP course. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS WRIT

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GEOL 0160G. Energy Resources.

Most of our energy comes directly from the Earth - predominantly as fossil fuels, but also from geothermal, wind, and hydro sources. Developing technologies for alternative energy such as solar, nuclear, biomass and fuel cells also rely on Earth resources. The potential for these energy sources will be discussed. The science behind their utilization and environmental impact (e.g. carbon sequestration and nuclear waste disposal) will be introduced and the trade-offs in making decisions for the future will be explored. CAP course. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS WRIT

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GEOL 0160H. Chicken Little or Armageddon? Past and Future Cosmic Threats.

Explore the probability of the next impact on the Earth and assess the possible consequences through historic times (incidents), folklore/legends, examples in recent geological time (last 10 million years), and the catastrophic consequences 65 million years ago. Strategies for searching and possible mitigation of the next "big one" will be considered. This seminar will explore the realities of various predictions, consider public policy, investigate strategies for prevention, and assess the role of the press in shaping perceptions. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160I. Diamonds.

Examines both the science and human history of diamonds, and shows how they have interacted over the years. Investigates how and where diamonds are formed in nature and what they tell us about the Earth. At the same time, explores the role diamonds have played in our history and culture. Enrollment limited to 12 first year students. FYS WRIT

Fall GEOL0160I S01 16662 TTh 2:30-3:50(03) (S. Parman)
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GEOL 0160J. The Natural History of Great Writers: From Goethe to Steinbeck.

Many great and influential writers have also been natural historians. This course examines selections from the writing of such authors as the romantic and naturalist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, the rationalist Benedict de Spinoza, the intuitive thermodynamicist William Blake, the naturalist novelist John Steinbeck, the lepidopterist novelist Vladimir Nabokov, the amateur paleontologist Arthur Conan Doyle, the proto-ecologist Henry David Thoreau, and the philosopher and sociologist Herbert Spencer. We will examine in a modern scientific context how facts and theories of natural history informed their writing and influenced their worldviews. Specific topics in this seminar will include: man’s place in nature and the importance of the discovery of this deep time perspective, Darwinian evolution and its impact on sociology, and the emerging science of ecology in 19th century American literature. Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS

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GEOL 0160M. Natural Disasters.

This First Year Seminar will explore natural disasters: the physical processes that cause them, and their effects on human life. Types of natural disasters covered include earthquakes, volcanoes, tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, and floods. The focus of the course will be case studies of specific disasters, allowing us to discuss both the science of natural hazards and the vulnerability of human populations to those hazards. It will provide a broad overview of the Earth Sciences, including geology and geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, and climatology. FYS

Fall GEOL0160M S01 17216 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (C. Dalton)
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GEOL 0160N. Monsters of the Abyss: Oceanography and Sea Tales.

We will read from the logbooks of Cook, Darwin, Wallace, and Nansen. Their discoveries and expeditions inspired and were inspired by fiction that we will also read, including Moby Dick and 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea. The daring successes and cannibalistic dooms of the Essex, Beagle, Terror, Challenger, and Fram inspired 19th century writers to imagine what lay far across and deep beneath the oceans. These retellings--fictional, narrative, and scientific--helped formulate and fund further research. Who risks their life for a bird, a map, a widow, or an eclipse? How would these scientists and their ideas do today? Enrollment limited to 20 first year students. FYS WRIT

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GEOL 0220. Physical Processes in Geology.

Introduction to the form and origin of interior and surface features of Earth, with emphasis on understanding the physical processes that produced them. Topics include interior processes (plate tectonics, mountain building, volcanism, earthquakes, and flow of solid rocks) and surface processes (atmospheric and oceanic circulation, flow of rivers, glaciers, and groundwater). Laboratory and field trips arranged. Intended for science concentrators or those wishing in-depth treatment. CAP course. Enrollment limited to 100. After pre-registration, instructor permission is required to register or get on wait-list. Please see or email instructor (Jan_Tullis@brown.edu).

Fall GEOL0220 S01 16653 MWF 11:00-11:50(02) (J. Tullis)
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GEOL 0230. Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes.

Introduction to the chemical and mineralogical nature of the Earth, Moon, and meteorites, and the role of chemical processes in their evolution. Topics include: composition of rock-forming minerals; origin of crustal and mantle rocks; stable and radiogenic isotopes; models of nucleosynthesis, planet formation and differentiation. Weekly laboratory and two field trips. Intended for science concentrators. Prerequisites: basic chemistry and GEOL 0010 or 0050 or 0220, or instructor permission.

Labs will meet Tuesdays from 7:00 pm to 9:00 pm.

Spr GEOL0230 S01 25583 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (S. Parman)
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GEOL 0240. Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet.

Introduces Earth's surface environment evolution - climate, chemistry, and physical makeup. Uses Earth's carbon cycle to understand solar, tectonic, and biological cycles' interactions. Examines the origin of the sedimentary record, dating of the geological record, chemistry and life on early Earth, and the nature of feedbacks that maintain the "habitable" range on Earth. Two field trips; five laboratories arranged. Prerequisite: GEOL 0220 or 0230, or instructor permission. WRIT

Spr GEOL0240 S01 25576 MWF 11:00-11:50(04) (T. Herbert)
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GEOL 0250. Computational Approaches to Modelling and Quantitative Analysis in Natural Sciences: An Introduction.

Application of numerical analysis to mathematical modelling in the natural sciences including topics such as ground water and glacier flow, earthquakes, climate models, phase equilibrium, and population dynamics. Numerical methods will include the solution of linear algebraic systems of equations, numerical integration, solution of differential equations, time series analysis, statistical data analysis tools. Development of computer programming skills in the Matlab programming environment. Suggested prerequisites: MATH 0090, 0100; PHYS 0030, 0040, or 0050, 0060.

Fall GEOL0250 S01 16701 MWF 10:00-10:50(14) (E. Parmentier)
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GEOL 0310. Fossil Record.

Integrated view of the history of life: biogeochemical cycles, biodiversity, evolution by natural selection, ecology, and physiology along a multiplicity of scales from the microbial to the planetary, as recorded in the fossil record. Attention is given to how biotic systems, in contrast to just physical systems, have changed through time maintaining the chemical and thermodynamic non-equilibrium state of the Earth's surface. Two lectures per week; several labs including dissections for paleobiological comparisons and one field trip to fossil localities and museum collections in Connecticut and Massachusetts. Prerequisites: GEOL 0220 or 0230 or 0240, BIOL 0200, or instructor permission.

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GEOL 0350. Mathematical Methods of Fluid and Solid Geophysics and Geology.

Intended for undergraduates concentrating in geological and physical sciences or engineering, especially those interested in the quantitative study of Earth. Problem sets will cover common approaches to quantify the dynamics and chemistry of solids and fluids in nature. Mathematical topics to be introduced include linear algebra, vectors and tensors, differential equations, dynamical systems, eigenvalues and eigenvectors, empirical orthogonal functions, fractals, chaos, and statistics. Applications include waves in the oceans, atmosphere, and solid earth, convective and conductive heat flow, reaction rates, gravitational potential energy, Newton’s laws on a rotating planet, measuring coastlines and ranges, and dating errors in stratigraphy.

Fall GEOL0350 S01 16659 MWF 11:00-11:50(02) (B. Fox-Kemper)
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GEOL 0580. Foundations of Physical Hydrology.

Qualitative introduction to the dynamics of watersheds and groundwater flow from an intuitive perspective. Lays the foundations for understanding the physical mechanisms by which water is transported throughout a hydrologic system. Provides background for future studies, but is primarily designed to enable informed citizens to thoughtfully critique water management practices and public policy. Pre-college math and physics background is expected.

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GEOL 0810. Planetary Geology.

This introductory level course will examine the evolution of our Solar System and the geology of planetary bodies, including Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, asteroids, and the moons of Jupiter and Saturn. We will discuss the origin of the Solar System from a geological perspective and explore how scientists combine observations from extraterrestrial samples such as meteorites with data returned by satellites and rovers to develop and test hypotheses related to planetary evolution. Emphasis will be on comparing geologic processes on these bodies to well-understood processes on Earth, results from past, current, and upcoming planetary missions, and the future of human and robotic exploration of space.

Spr GEOL0810 S01 25584 MWF 10:00-10:50(03) (R. Milliken)
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GEOL 1110. Estuarine Oceanography.

Examines physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of local estuaries using field measurements, analysis of field data, and interpretation of processes; field investigation results will be prepared as a cooperative class report. Topics include: tidal and circulation processes, salinity and freshwater fluxes, watershed pollutants, estuary flushing rates, and estuary ecosystems. Primarily for students with experience in the sciences. MATH 0090, 0100, or equivalent, recommended. Enrollment limited to 20. WRIT

Labs will be held on Fridays from 1-5pm, with fieldwork through mid-October.

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GEOL 1120. Paleoceanography.

An examination of the Cenozoic history of the world ocean with attention to the processes which have acted to change its circulation, climate, geometry, and biology. Develops a strategy to use marine sediments and microfossils to identify and understand past variations in the oceans. Class projects analyze and interpret various types of paleoceanographic data. Laboratory arranged. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 1130. Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles.

A quantitative treatment of the cycling of biologically important elements in the world ocean. Special attention paid to the carbon system in the ocean and the role that organisms, in conjunction with ocean circulation, play in regulating the carbon dioxide content of the atmosphere through exchange with the surface ocean. For science concentrators. Offered alternate years. Prerequisite: CHEM 0330 or equivalent, or instructor permission. WRIT

Fall GEOL1130 S01 16660 MWF 2:00-2:50(07) (T. Herbert)
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GEOL 1150. Limnology: The Study of Lakes.

This course will provide an interdisciplinary overview of the physics, chemistry, biology, and geology of lakes. Areas of emphasis will include the origin of lake basins, water circulation patterns, heat and water budgets, biogeochemical processes, lake ecosystems, and the stratigraphic record of lakes. We will also discuss human and climatic impacts on lakes. Prerequisites: GEOL 0220 and 0240, or instructor permission. Enrollment limited to 20. WRIT

Spr GEOL1150 S01 25987 MWF 11:00-11:50(04) (J. Russell)
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GEOL 1240. Stratigraphy and Sedimentation.

Introduction to depositional environments and processes responsible for formation of sedimentary rocks. Major sedimentary environments in the Recent are discussed, general models are proposed, and stratigraphic sequences in older sediments are examined in the light of these models. The Phanerozoic stratigraphic record is examined from the perspective of Earth system history. Laboratory arranged. Prerequisites: GEOL 0220 or 0240, or instructor permission. GEOL 0310, 1410 are also recommended. WRIT

Fall GEOL1240 S01 16661 TTh 10:30-11:50(13) (J. Russell)
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GEOL 1310. Global Water Cycle.

The goal of this class is to understand the physical principles and processes of the global water cycle. Topics include the climatic importance of water, circulation of atmospheric water vapor, formation of rain and snow, availability of soil water, plant-water relations, mass balance of glaciers, and ongoing and expected changes in the water cycle. Additional goals: become familiar with the current research literature, practice clear and concise science writing, and to use simple programming in Python to plot and analyze actual data sets.

Students are expected to have taken at least one geology-related course. Programming experience recommended, but not necessary.

Spr GEOL1310 S01 25577 TTh 9:00-10:20(08) (J. Lee)
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GEOL 1320. Introduction to Geographic Information Systems for Environmental Applications.

Introduction to the concepts of geospatial analysis and digital mapping. The principles of spatial data structures, coordinate systems, database development and design, and techniques of spatial analysis are learned. This is an applied course, primarily using ESRI-based geographic information system software. Focal point of class is the completion of student-selected research project employing GIS methods. Enrollment limited to 10 in each section. Permission by an application provided by the instructor (to be requested through email). S/NC.

Fall GEOL1320 S01 16711 TTh 10:30-11:50(13) (L. Carlson)
Fall GEOL1320 S02 16712 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (L. Carlson)
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GEOL 1330. Global Environmental Remote Sensing.

Introduction to physical principles of remote sensing across electromagnetic spectrum and application to the study of Earth's systems (oceans, atmosphere, and land). Topics: interaction of light with materials, imaging principles and interpretation, methods of data analysis. Laboratory work in digital image analysis, classification, and multi-temporal studies. One field trip to Block Island. Recommended preparation courses: MATH 0090, 0100; PHYS 0060; and background courses in natural sciences.

Spr GEOL1330 S01 25834 MWF 2:00-2:50(07) (J. Mustard)
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GEOL 1350. Weather and Climate.

Weather phenomena occur on short time scales, and form the basis for understanding climate, the study of changes over longer time scales. This course aims to provide an understanding of the processes that drive weather patterns, the general circulation of the atmosphere, and climate on Earth. Topics include: structure and composition of the atmosphere; sources of energy driving atmospheric processes; weather forecasting; the hydrological cycle; the forces that create severe weather; the influence of humans on the atmosphere; and factors that influence climate, climate variability and climate change. MATH 0090, 0100; PHYS 0050, or equivalent recommended. Enrollment limited to 30. WRIT

Spr GEOL1350 S01 25578 TTh 2:30-3:50(11) (A. Lynch)
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GEOL 1370. Environmental Geochemistry.

The course will examine the biogeochemical cycling, fate and transport of chemicals in the atmospheric and aquatic environments. Topics such as chemical weathering, natural water pollution and remediation, acid deposition, global warming and air pollution will be examined through natural ecosystem examples from rivers, lakes, estuaries, and ocean. Field trips and laboratory arranged. Prerequisites: CHEM 0100 or 0330, or instructor permission.

Fall GEOL1370 S01 17010 TTh 9:00-10:20(08) (Y. Huang)
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GEOL 1380. Environmental Stable Isotopes.

Introduction to the concepts, analytical methods, theory and environmental applications of stable H, O, C, N and S isotopes. Emphasis will be placed on theory and applications of light isotopes in paleoclimate studies, environmental hydrogeology and biogeochemistry. Prerequisites: CHEM 0100, GEOL 0220 or 0230 recommended, or instructor permission.

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GEOL 1410. Mineralogy.

Introduction to mineralogical processes on Earth's surface and its interior. Topics include crystallography, crystal chemistry, nucleation, crystal growth, biomineralization, environmental mineralogy, and mantle mineralogy. Laboratory study devoted to optical identification of rock-forming minerals. Prerequisites: GEOL 0230, CHEM 0100 or 0330, or equivalent.

Fall GEOL1410 S01 16663 MWF 10:00-10:50(14) (Y. Liang)
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GEOL 1420. Petrology.

Introduction to the origin of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Emphasis on principles and understanding rather than facts and memorization. Principles are used to extract information concealed in the rocks about their formation, processes, sources and evolution with time. Laboratory work focuses on rock hand samples and microscopic textures. Field trips, laboratory arranged. Prerequisites: GEOL 1410, or instructor permission.

Spr GEOL1420 S01 25996 TTh 9:00-10:20(08) (Y. Liang)
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GEOL 1430. Principles of Planetary Climate.

This course provides the physical building blocks for understanding planetary climate. Topics include thermodynamics applied to planetary atmosphere, basic radiative transfer, energy balance in the atmosphere, and climate variability. In-class exercises and homework problems are designed to strengthen the understanding of basic concepts and to improve problem-solving skills.

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GEOL 1450. Structural Geology.

Introduction to the geometry, kinematics and mechanics of rocks deformed by brittle fracture or faulting and ductile solid state flow, on scales from microscopic to mountain ranges. The emphasis is on using concepts to interpret the formation, strain history and rheology of deformed rocks in terms of the operative grain-scale processes, material properties and environmental conditions. Weekly 2 hour lab involving hands-on experience closely related to class topics. Two field trips. Prerequisites: GEOL 0220 or instructor permission. WRIT

Spr GEOL1450 S01 25591 TTh 10:30-11:50(09) (J. Tullis)
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GEOL 1510. Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics.

The objective of GEOL1510 is to understand the fundamental physical principles that govern the motion of the atmosphere. Students will explore the dynamics of the atmosphere and the mathematical laws governing weather and climate. Topics include the fundamental equations of motion in rotating fluids, hydrostatic, geostrophic and thermal wind balance, and vorticity, as applied to phenomena, including sea breezes, planetary waves, midlatitude cyclones, fronts, and the global general circulation. The emphasis will be on physical interpretation of the equations but facility with vector calculus is critical. Enrollment limited to 30.

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GEOL 1520. Ocean Circulation and Climate.

Examines physical characteristics, processes, and dynamics of the global ocean to understand circulation patterns and how they relate to ocean biology, chemistry, climate change. Assignments address ocean's role in the climate system; ocean observations and models; the origin, distribution, and dynamics of large-scale ocean circulation and water masses; energy and freshwater budgets; and variability of the coupled system on seasonal to centennial timescales e.g. El Niño. Intended for geological and physical sciences undergraduate and graduate students with quantitative skills and an interest in oceans, climate, paleoclimate. Pre-requisites: GEOL0350 or PHYS0720 or APMA 0340. Offered alternate years, previously offered as GEOL1100. WRIT

Spr GEOL1520 S01 25742 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (B. Fox-Kemper)
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GEOL 1560. Global Tectonics.

Plate tectonic theory and the evolution of continents and the seafloor. Emphasis on the structure and tectonics of western U.S. considering geological, geophysical, and geochemical constraints as well as direct geodetic observations of plate motions from GPS measurements. Prerequisite: GEOL 0220 and 0230. Three or more of GEOL 0220, 0230, 1240, 1410, 1420, 1450 and 1610 are recommended.

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GEOL 1580. Quantitative Elements of Physical Hydrology.

Physical hydrology with emphasis on fundamental physical principles and mathematical tools. Topics include precipitation, surface runoff, groundwater flow, water quality and contaminate transport. Prerequisites: APMA 0340; and ENGN 0510 or PHYS 0470; ENGN 0810 is recommended; or instructor permission.

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GEOL 1590. Quantitative Modeling of Hydrologic Processes.

A quantitative overview of selected topics at the advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate student level of analytical and numerical models for simulating surface runoff, groundwater flow and contaminant migration. While participants will employ computers and scientific visualization to implement the material, no prior computing experience is expected. Non-concentrators encouraged. No exams. Prerequisites: PHYS 0470, or ENGN 0510.

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GEOL 1590A. Quantitative Modeling of Hydrologic Processes.

A quantitative overview of selected topics at the advanced undergraduate, beginning graduate student level of analytical and numerical models for simulating surface runoff, groundwater flow and contaminant migration. While participants will employ computers and scientific visualization to implement the material, no prior computing experience is expected. Non-concentrators encouraged. No exams. Prerequisites: PHYS 0070, or ENGN 0510.

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GEOL 1600. Environmental and Engineering Geophysics.

A hands-on introduction to non-invasive geophysical methods applied to subsurface investigations of soil and bedrock conditions, groundwater, geotechnical engineering, forensics, archaeology and other environmental applications. Students will use ground penetrating radar, seismic, gravity resistivity, electromagnetic and magnetic methods in the field one afternoon a week to investigate relevant environmental and geotechnical problems. A background in geology is not expected. Prerequisites: APMA 0340 and PHYS 0470, or ENGN 0510, or instructor permission.

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GEOL 1610. Solid Earth Geophysics.

A survey of basic geophysical techniques for determining the structure and dynamics of Earth's interior. Topics include: global structure from seismic waves; gravity, magnetic field, and shape of the Earth; thermal processes within the Earth; structure of continental and oceanic lithosphere. Recommended courses: GEOL 0220, PHYS 0470, APMA 0330. No prerequisites.

Spr GEOL1610 S01 25870 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (C. Dalton)
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GEOL 1615. The Environmental Policy Process.

The diminishing quantity and quality of the resources of the Earth carries profound implications for the fulfillment of human rights and aspirations. But even as we understand better the intrinsic interdependencies between humans and the environment, policy gridlock persists. Indeed, the findings of fundamental environmental science are regularly contested on political grounds. The purpose of this course is to learn how to apply knowledge to map the relevant policy context in environmental issues, and to develop the tools and approaches to address any problem of decision in the environmental arena more creatively, effectively, and responsibly. WRIT

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GEOL 1620. Continuum Physics of the Solid Earth.

Physics of the Earth with emphasis on fundamental physical principles and mathematical tools. Topics include application of: conductive and convective heat transfer to cooling of the Earth; potential theory to interpretation of gravity anomalies; solid mechanics to deformation of Earth's lithosphere; fluid mechanics to flow in the Earth's interior and in porous media. Recommended courses: GEOL 0220; APMA 0340; PHYS 0470 or ENGN 0510.

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GEOL 1650. Earthquake Seismology.

Topics include: location of earthquakes in space and time; measures of size and intensity of shaking; body waves, surface waves, and free oscillations; structure of the interior of the Earth from wave propagation; earthquake faulting and relationship to tectonic processes. Recommended course: GEOL 0161. Offered in alternate years.

Spr GEOL1650 S01 25593 TTh 10:30-11:50(09) (K. Fischer)
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GEOL 1660. Instrumental Analysis with Environmental Applications.

This course covers the principles and practical applications of important analytical chemistry tools used to study environmental problems, including discussions of method selection and statistical treatment of data. Students will strategize and implement a study of a field site. Includes lab sessions with hands-on experience of instrumental analysis using atomic and molecular spectroscopic techinques, separations by gas and liquid chromatography, and electrochemical methods. Prerequisite: CHEM 0330 or GEOL 1370. Enrollment limited to 20. Instructor permission required.

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GEOL 1710. Remote Sensing of Earth and Planetary Surfaces.

Geologic applications of remotely sensed information derived from interaction of electromagnetic radiation (X-ray, gamma-ray, visible, near-IR, mid-IR, radar) with geologic materials. Applications emphasize remote geochemical analyses for both terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments. Several spectroscopy and image processing labs. GEOL 1410 (Mineralogy), PHYS 0060, or equivalent recommended.

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GEOL 1810. Physics of Planetary Evolution.

Evolution of planetary bodies based on geological and geophysical evidence derived from planetary exploration of the solar system. Includes the study of physical processes responsible for volcanism and deformation on the surface as well as the state and structure of the interior of planets. Prerequisites: GEOL 0050; PHYS 0030, 0040 or 0050, PHYS 0060; MATH 0090, 0100, or instructor permission. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 1820. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics: Waves and Mean Flows Edition.

Explores theories of the large-scale ocean and atmosphere, including quasigeostrophic, planetary geostrophic, and shallow water equations. Topics will vary to focus on features of the general circulation and climate system (e.g. thermocline, westward intensification, jet stream dynamics, polar vortex, meridional overturning circulations), instabilities and waves (e.g. gravity, Rossby, and Kelvin), or rotating stratified turbulence. May be repeated with permission of instructor. Pre-requisites: Pre-requisite: GEOL0350 or PHYS0720 or APMA 0340 and GEOL1510 or GEOL1520.

Fall GEOL1820 S01 17068 MWF 9:00-9:50(01) (B. Fox-Kemper)
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GEOL 1950C. Planetary Materials.

A comparative planetology course that examines the origin and evolution of materials on the Earth, Moon, and Mars through sample analyses, spacecraft observations, and modeling approaches. Recommended courses: GEOL 1410, 1420. No prerequisites.

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GEOL 1950D. Field and Tectonics Seminar.

Development of field mapping and interpretive skills used in the evolution of complex orogenic terranes. Structural field mapping is carried out in highly deformed metamorphic and igneous rocks in the New England Appalachians, the site of a continental collision associated with the formation of the supercontinent Pangea. Expected: GEOL 0230 and GEOL 1450, or equivalent, and field mapping experience (generally a summer geological mapping course). Students are required to arrive one week prior to the start of classes for the beginning of field work. Instructor permission required.

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GEOL 1950F. Geomicrobiology.

Microbes were the predominant form of life for most of Earth's history and continue to drive many of the elemental cycles that sustain life in our contemporary biosphere. By taking this course students will learn about the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of microbes in the environment and their influence on global biogeochemical cycles. Students will gain hands-on experience with molecular and environmental microbiological techniques and the bioinformatics tools required to analyze and interpret the resulting data. There are 2 sections or topical areas: Phylogenetic and ecological diversity of microbes; Microbial and metabolic diversity of biogeochemical cycling. Prerequisite: BIOL 0415 or 1460 or 1480 or GEOL 1130. Enrollment limited to 12. Instructor permission required

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GEOL 1950G. Astrophysical and Dynamical Processes in Planetary Sciences.

Astrophysical and Dynamical Processes in Planetary Sciences is a course that challenges students to use physical and geophysical analysis to construct a quantitative understanding of the formation and evolution of the Sun, the solar system’s planets and small bodies, and extrasolar planets. The goal is to provide senior undergraduate and first-year graduate students with core knowledge of facts and current theories in the planetary sciences. Through lectures, problem sets, and exams, the students will construct quantitative framework on which to evaluate, and place into context, hypotheses and theories discussed in upper-level graduate courses. Prerequisites: MATH 0100; and one of GEOL 0050, PHYS 0210, 0220, or 0270. APMA 0330 is desirable but not required.

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GEOL 1960A. Rheology of the Crust and Mantle.

Introduces the principals of rock mechanics and uses them to describe brittle and ductile deformation processes in the crust and mantle. Each topic will review experimental constraints on deformation mechanisms and introduce the theories that support their application to geological conditions. Analyze microstructural observations in real rocks to link what is learned in the lab to what actually is seen in the Earth. Topics to be covered include: brittle fracture and crack propagation, frictional sliding, the brittle/plastic transition, viscous deformation mechanisms, microstructural analysis of deformed rocks, and the scaling and extrapolation of laboratory flow laws. The class will also feature a field trip to well-exposed crustal faults and shear zones. Several class periods and a class project will focus on microstructural observations of rocks collected during the field trip. Pre-requisite: GEOL 1450 or permission of instructor. Enrollment limited to 20.

Fall GEOL1960A S01 17146 TTh 2:30-3:50(03) (G. Hirth)
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GEOL 1960F. Patterns in Nature, in Society.

The shapes of plants and animals, of mountains and shorelines arise because nature dissipates energy as rapidly as possible. These morphological patterns allow description of the energy "landscape" that produced them. Societies and economies show temporal and spatial patterns as well: does the "flow rate" of ideas and of money cause these patterns? We will explore just how "entropy rules." Enrollment limited to 16. Instructor permission required.

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GEOL 1960H. The Early Earth.

Primary focus on evolution of the solid Earth (core, mantle, crust) but will also include discussion of the Archean hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere. Reading and discussing current literature, with lectures. Intended for graduate students and upper level undergraduates with advanced petrology and/or geophysics. Enrollment limited to 20.

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GEOL 1960J. Reactions and Rheology: Chemical and Mechanical Kinetics in Mineral Systems.

Characterization of atomic diffusion and dislocation motion responsible for chemical and physical reactions and plastic rheology in ionic solids. Topics include: point-defect thermodynamics; atomic diffusion (physical and mathematical); solid-solution formation; solid-state compound formation; dislocation structures; grain boundary structure and chemical segregation; plastic rheology. Recommended three or more of GEOL 1410, GEOL 1420, or ENGN 0410, ENGN 1410, or CHEM 0330, CHEM 1060. Enrollment limited to 20.

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GEOL 1960K. Carbon Cycle Seminar.

Consideration of quantitative models of the cycling of carbon between various reservoirs near Earth's surface. Topics include: mass balance models of carbon sedimentation; carbon chemistry in the ocean; exchange of carbon between atmosphere, ocean, and biosphere; and consumption of carbon in weathering reactions with rocks. Special emphasis will be placed on the use of isotopic tracers (d13C, 14C) to estimate present and past dynamics of the carbon cycle. Instructor's permission required. Enrollment limited to 20.

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GEOL 1960M. Lab and Field Methods in Hydrology.

A series of hands-on opportunitites for students to characterize the hydrologic properties of soils and simple hydrologic systems in the lab, combined with selected outdoor exercises using standard hydrologic tools in the field. High school math and physics recommended. Enrollment limited to 20.

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GEOL 1970. Individual Study of Geologic Problems.

One semester is required for seniors in Sc.B. and honors program. Course work includes preparation of a thesis. Section numbers vary by instructor. Please check Banner for the correct section number and CRN to use when registering for this course. Enrollment is restricted to undergraduates only.

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GEOL 2300. Mathematical and Computational Earth Sciences.

For graduate students interested in quantitative study of the Earth in geological, physical, or engineering sciences. Mathematical topics to be introduced include tensor analysis, asymptotic and per turbation analysis of differential equations, numerical integration of differential equations, basis functions and pattern recognition, fractals and multifractals, and statistics. Applications will vary by offering, but examples include: statistics of turbulence and earthquakes, advection-reaction-diffusion systems, boundary layers, development of shocks and singularities, climate change, carbon sensitivity, and dimensional reduction of geophysical data. Intensive review of introductory mathematical methods through leading discussions in a lower level class. Earth, fluid, or solid science background recommended.

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GEOL 2330. Advanced Remote Sensing.

Strategies and the physical principles behind the quantitative extraction of geophysical and biophysical properties from remotely sensed data. Emphasis on radiative transfer theory and modeling of spectra and spectral mixtures from optical constants. Advanced methods of digital image processing. Methods of integrating remotely sensed data into a GIS framework will be introduced. Recommended preparation course: GEOL 1330 or 1710; MATH 0100; PHYS 0600.

Fall GEOL2330 S01 17120 TTh 2:30-3:50(03) (J. Mustard)
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GEOL 2350. Quaternary Climatology Seminar.

Discussion of current problems in paleoclimatology and global climate change. Students analyze the primary literature, and do original analyses of their own on published data. Topics include: theories of ice ages, millennial-scale climate variability, the influence of greenhouse gases and radiative forcing on climate, and historical and future climate changes. Prerequisites: graduate student status; or GEOL 0240, 0310, and 1240; or instructor permission.

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GEOL 2410. Kinetics of Geochemical Processes.

Emphasizes kinetic theories and their geological applications. Topics include: rate laws of chemical reaction, rates of chemical weathering; fundamentals of diffusion, nucleation, crystal growth, and dissolution; transport theory. Recommended prerequisite: GEOL 2460 or equivalent.

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GEOL 2430. Igneous Petrology.

Study of mineral equilibria in igneous rocks in relation to theoretical and experimental studies in silicate systems. Principles of the origin and evolution of igneous rocks in space and time. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 2440. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks.

Study of metamorphic rocks with emphasis on mineral equilibria, metamorphic facies, and metamorphic facies series. Topics include: metasomatism, mobile components, partial anatexis, and petrogenetic grids. Prerequisite: GEOL 2460. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 2450. Exchange Scholar Program.

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GEOL 2460. Phase Equilibria.

Principles of thermodynamics and phase equilibria in unary, binary, ternary, and multicomponent systems using analytical and graphical methods. Other topics include: solution theory, equations of state, and thermodynamics of surfaces.

Fall GEOL2460 S01 16672 MWF 11:00-11:50(14) (R. Cooper)
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GEOL 2520. Numerical Geodynamics.

Numerical methods for the solution of continuum physics problems arising in geophysics and geology: Basic theoretical formulations and algorithms implementing finite element, finite difference, and boundary element methods are developed. Applications include problems in viscous and plastic flow, elasticity, and heat and mass transport discussed within a geological framework. Course consists of lectures and a computer project applying the methods and concepts considered to a scientifically significant problem. Recommended: APMA 0330, 0340; ENGN 1750. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 2630. Interpretation Theory in Geophysics.

Use basic statistical theory and its matrix algebra representation and modern approaches for the optimum design of experiments, constructing model solutions to measurements, and describing nonuniqueness in models, with particular emphasis on generalized linear-inverse techniques. Introduction to stochastic processes and prediction. Recommended courses: GEOL 1610; MATH 0290, 0520, or APMA 0330, 0340, and computer programming skills. Offered alternate years.

Spr GEOL2630 S01 25595 MWF 2:00-2:50(07) (D. Forsyth)
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GEOL 2650. Advanced Seismology.

The theory of modern seismology will be applied to imaging of Earth structure (from local to global scales) and determination of earthquake source models. Topics include elastic wave propagation, representation theorems, seismic tomography, moment tensors, source-time functions, and models of fault rupture. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 2730. Isotope Geochemistry.

A survey course emphasizing fundamental principles in isotope geochemistry, including nuclear systematics, nucleosynthesis, geochronological and stable isotope systems, and the application of radiogenic and stable isotopic tracers to geological problems. Prerequisites: GEOL 1410 and 1420, or instructor permission.

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GEOL 2800. The Chemistry and Mineralogy of Mars.

Examination of the chemical and mineralogical composition of Mars as revealed from meteorites and spacecraft missions. Example topics include: SNC meteorites, origin and evolution of the crust, alteration processes, remote near- and thermal-infrared observations, remote gamma-ray and neutron measurements, and petrology of surface materials. Recommended courses: GEOL 1410, 1420, 1710, or equivalent. No prerequisites.

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GEOL 2810. Planetary Science Seminar.

New data for the Moon and Mercury from recent missions (including Chanrayaan-1, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL and MESSENGER) permit new insights into “The Crater to Basin Transition on the Moon and Mercury”. In this seminar course we will examine this transition using these new data and recent developments in cratering theory and modeling. The course will feature research from the NASA SSERVI activity. Prerequisites: Instructor permission.

M Hour (3:00 PM-5:20 PM Mondays). Professor James Head; Research Associates Ross Potter and David Baker.

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GEOL 2840. Asteroids and Meteorites.

Compositional and petrographic characteristics of meteorites are examined along with the physical and compositional diversity of asteroids and other small bodies of the solar system. Possible links between specific types of asteroids and meteorite groups will be evaluated in the context of early solar system evolution. Data from spacecraft encounters with asteroids will be critically reviewed.

Spr GEOL2840 S01 25585 TTh 1:00-2:20(10) (R. Milliken)
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GEOL 2850. Regolith Processes.

Particulate material (regoliths) and soils develop on every planetary surface. Physical and chemical alteration of the uppermost surface results from interwoven active processes of specific environments. Understanding these processes and products is central to interpreting data returned from planetary surfaces. Regoliths reflect surface history over a variety of time scales. Several planetary environments are examined in detail. Prerequisites: GEOL 1410, 1710, 2880, or instructor permission.

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GEOL 2860. Planetary Volcanology.

An examination of volcanism using observations of features and deposits on planetary bodies, comparing them to predictions from the theory of magma ascent and emplacement. Attention to the influence of different variables (e.g. gravity, composition, temperature, pressure, and atmospheric effects). The history of planetary volcanism, its relation to thermal evolution, and comparative planetary volcanology are also addressed. Offered alternate years.

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GEOL 2870. Planetary Evolution: Phobos and Deimos.

Planetary Evolution in the Fall of 2015 will focus on the two moons of Mars, Phobos and Deimos. In conjunction with scientists from the NASA Solar System Exploration Science Virtual Institute (SSERVI), we will investigate the geology, mineralogy, internal structure, surface features, regolith, space weathering, orbital dynamics, dust environment, history, origin, relation to Mars, and potential as a human and robotic exploration destination. Individual lectures on these topics will be followed by extensive class discussion and individual projects to investigate different aspects of Phobos and Deimos.

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GEOL 2880. Planetary Cratering.

Impact cratering is arguably the most pervasive geologic process in the solar system. This course will study the physical process of impact cratering and its place in planetary science. The course will take a process oriented approach to understanding impact cratering with firm foundations in geologic observation and impact experiments. To explore the extreme process of impact cratering, we will use continuum/rock mechanics, thermodynamics, numerical modeling, experiments, and observations. Principal topics will include the formation of craters from contact of the projectile to final crater morphology; shock metamorphism; impact ejecta and products; cratered terrains; impacts and planetary evolution; and impact hazards.

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GEOL 2910A. Problems in Antarctic Dry Valley Geoscience.

The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent an extreme hyperarid polar desert environment. Their geomorphology records the range of processes operating in these environments, preserving a record of climate change of millions of years. Major microenvironments are studied at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scale through literature review, field analyses, and research projects. Exobiological themes and climate change on Mars will be assessed.

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GEOL 2910B. Advanced Remote Sensing and Geographical Information Systems (GIS).

Strategies and the physical principles behind the quantitative extraction of geophysical and biophysical measurements from remotely sensed data. Advanced methods of digital image processing and data integration. Introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and methods of integrating remotely sensed data into a GIS framework. Prerequisites: GEOL 1330 or 1710; MATH 0100; PHYS 0060; or permission of the instructor.

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GEOL 2910C. The Global Nitrogen Cycle.

This seminar course will survey the literature and discuss aspects of the marine, atmosphere, biosphere and geologic cycles of reactive nitrogen. Topics include general evaluation of the N cycle in these systems and records of changes in the N cycle through time, particularly on relevant climate change timescales.

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GEOL 2910E. Miocene: Prelude to the Ice Ages and Analogue to Future Climate Change.

The Miocene Epoch (~23 to 5 Ma) was characterized by a variety of interconnected changes including the tectonic evolution of various ocean gateways, changes in surface and deep-ocean circulation patterns and evolving ocean and atmospheric chemistry. In the Middle Miocene, these conditions resulted in reduced pole-to-equator temperature gradients and global mean annual surface temperatures of ~18°C, equivalent to warming predicted for the next century. These evolving conditions in the Late Miocene set the stage for the initiation of high amplitude northern hemisphere glacial cycles. Study of Miocene climate will yield insight into mechanisms relevant to past and future climate change.

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GEOL 2910F. Earthquake Mechanics, Rheology and Rock Friction.

Reading current literature, class discussion, lectures to explore current research in fault mechanics and rheology. Time in the lab examining microstructures in both experimental and natural samples. Topics will include: (1) Deformation mechanisms associated with slow slip and tremor; (2) Grain-size evolution processes and their geophysical implications; (3) Grain-size sensitive deformation processes and their geophysical implications. Prior to each class, students will submit (via email) at least 2 questions about the assigned reading. After class, there will be 3 or 4 questions to answer on topics covered in the reading and during class discussion.

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GEOL 2910G. Dynamics of Ice Sheets and Glaciers.

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GEOL 2910I. Marine Geophysical Techniques.

Theory and practice of common techniques employed in geophysical exploration of the oceanic crust, including gravity and magnetic potential field measurements, multi-beam echosounding, side-scan sonar, seismic reflection and refraction profiling, navigation and map construction. Must be willing to participate in 50-day research cruise.

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GEOL 2910P. Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems.

The goal of this course is to introduce students to our current understanding of how planetary systems form and evolve. We will focus on the physical theories describing how the structures of planetary systems develop and how planets, moons, and other heavenly bodies form. We will also consider the relationship between these theories and observations (astronomical, geophysical, cosmochemical) of the Solar System and extrasolar planetary systems. This will include some discussion how the Solar System fits into our understanding of the veritable menagerie of planetary systems.

Fall GEOL2910P S01 17355 TTh 10:30-11:50(13) (B. Johnson)
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GEOL 2920B. Cyclicities and Singularities in the History of Life.

Investigates large-scale patterns, processes, and events in the history of life. Attention is focused on links between external and intrinsic forcings by contrasting the macro- and micro-evolutionary and ecological sequelae of known cyclical environmental changes (cyclicities) and unique events (singularities). Topics include: climate cyclicity, species flocks, species selection, turnover pulse hypothesis, cyclical taxonomic turnover, mass extinctions, and key evolutionary innovations. Students will have the opportunity to experiment with different time-evolutive methods.

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GEOL 2920C. The Sedimentary Rock Cycle of Mars and Earth.

This course consists of a mixture of instructor and student-led discussions on topics related to the sedimentary rock cycle on Mars as viewed through the lens of how we understand such processes on Earth. Topics:sediment transport and deposition, erosion processes and rates, lithification + diagenesis, water-rock interaction, and cyclicity in strata. Major goal: Assess how the sedimentary rock record of Mars can be used to understand changes in depositional processes and environmental conditions through time. Results from Mars satellite and rover data will be discussed, with an emphasis on fundamental processes as understood from detailed studies of Earths sedimentary rock record. Prerequisite: Undergraduate level sedimentology/stratigraphy, or permission of instructor.

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GEOL 2920D. Introduction to Geochemical Modeling.

Continuum descriptions of mass transfer in geochemical cycles. Topics include: fundamentals of diffusive and advective mass transfer, kinetics of weathering and early diagenesis, fluid flow in the Earth's crust and mantle, trace elements and isotopes in magmatic processes. Recommended: CHEM 0330, GEOL 1610 and APMA 0330, 0340.

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GEOL 2920E. Introduction to Organic Geochemistry.

Mainly literature critiques and seminars, supplemented by introductory lectures. Topics include organic biomarkers, analytical methodologies, natural macromolecules, stable isotope ratios of biomarkers, application of organic geochemistry in studies of climatic and environmental change, fossil fuel exploration, and applied environmental research.

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GEOL 2920F. Kinetics of Mineralogical and Petrological Processes.

Emphasizes kinetic theories and their geological applications. Topics include: fundamentals of diffusion in crystals and melts, theories of nucleation and crystal growth, kinetics of melting and dissolving, theory of phase transformation. Prerequisite: GEOL 2460 or equivalent.

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GEOL 2920H. Past Variations in the Global Carbon Cycle.

This course will examine variations in the earth's carbon cycle over multiple time scales. We will examine geological tools that measure rates of carbon storage and release, especially over the past one million years. Special emphasis will be given to monitoring rates of past biological carbon storage.

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GEOL 2920K. Special Topics in Geological Sciences: The Hydrological Cycle on Mars.

Evidence for the changing hydrological cycle on Mars, ranging from what appears to be an early warm and wet Mars, through history to the present very cold polar desert Antarctic-like environment will be examined. Ongoing rover exploration of Mars will be followed to assess what these new results are telling us about the hydrological cycle.

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GEOL 2920L. Evolution of the Moon II.

A seminar on the thermal and chemical evolution of the Moon. In this part II of lunar seminar, we will focus more on petrological and geochemical observations of lunar samples, terrestrial layered intrusions, related geophysical observations, and lunar petrogenesis. Prerequisite: GEOL 1420, 2730, or 2920K.

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GEOL 2920N. Problems Antartic Dry Valley Geoscience.

The Antarctic Dry Valleys represent an extreme hyperarid polar desert environment. Their geomorphology records the range of processes operating in these environments, preserving a record of climate change over millions of years. Major microenvironments are studied at the micro-, meso-, and macro-scale through literature review, field analyses, and research projects. Exobiological themes and climate change on Mars will be assessed.

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GEOL 2920O. Physics of Melt Migration.

A seminar course focusing on the physical processes and geochemical consequences of melt migration in the mantle. Topics include, but are not limited to: flow in porous media; compaction; adiabatic melting and melt-rock reaction; instabilities in melt migration; melt generation beneath mid-ocean ridge; and melt migration in other tectonic environments. Recommended course: GEOL 1620. Enrollment limited to 15. S/NC

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GEOL 2920Q. Rheological Boundaries in the Earth.

The properties of lower crust control the coupling of mantle convection to shallow crustal dynamics, post-seismic creep and the chemical evolution of the Earth. On Earth we have xenolyths and exhumed lower crustal rocks to study and relate to geophysical, experimental and theoretical investigations. We will explore these avenues of research with the goal of synthesizing our understanding of the behavior of lower crust on Earth as well as other terrestrial planets.

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GEOL 2920R. Evolution of the Moon.

Petrological, geochemical, and geophysical observations, physical and chemical processes relevant to the formation and evolution of the Moon.

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GEOL 2920S. Continental Cratons.

The focus of this course is the formation, evolution, and structure of continental cratons. These topics will be explored through a survey of the observational constraints on cratons, including seismology, gravity, heat flow, geochemistry, and petrology. The use of dynamical models to investigate the assembly, destruction, and long-term stability of cratons will also be considered.

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GEOL 2920T. Science Applications of Lunar Spectroscopy.

This course will focus on current science issues that are addressed with new lunar orbital or laboratory spectroscopy data. Each participant must identify a specific science topic (and data source) to be pursued and brought to completion during the term. Format will be seminar with very active participation by all attending. At the beginning of the term each participant will describe their chosen research topic. Subsequent sessions will critically examine issues that are associated with each topic in an iterative fashion, focusing on progress made, problems faced, solutions designed, insights found, and finally completed project. Prerequisites: GEOL 1710 and confirmation with instructor about the project.

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GEOL 2920U. Climate Variations.

This course will examine the geologic record of lake basins on decadal to million-year time-scales. Students will gain hands-on experience with techniques in paleolimnology including sediment core acquisition, sediment description, petrography, sedimentology and environmental analysis, geochemistry, basic core scanning, and age determination, modeling, and time series analysis. The biotic content and interpretation of fossils will be stressed. The course will also cover theoretical aspects of paleolimnology and more specialized techniques according to student interests through student-led discussions and a course project on regional lake sediments. Graduate students only; enrollment limited to 20.

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GEOL 2920V. Terrestrial Nitrogen and Carbon Cycling.

This course will examine aboveground/ belowground processes in the context of the global nitrogen and carbon cycles, and the impacts of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances. It will include discussion of processes such as (de)nitrification, N-fixation, respiration, photosynthesis, and decomposition and their relationship to soil properties; the coupling of N and C cycles in soils related to climate change and increasing N deposition. It will include emphasis on emerging new techniques to quantify N and C processes in the laboratory, field and through modeling, and field trip investigating current field studies. Prerequisites: BIOL 1480 or GEOL 1130 or equivalent biogeochemistry course. Enrollment limited to 15.

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GEOL 2920W. Numerical Climate Change Scenarios for Southern New England.

This seminar will examine regional-scale climate model scenarios for past and future climate change in Southern New England. Reliable estimates of the trajectory and variability of climate change are needed to address specific climate impacts, adaptations, and mitigations. Global climate model simulations, based on a range of IPPC green house gas scenarios, need to be "downscaled" to achieve useful regional resolution. Understanding the generation of these high-resolution "downscaled" climate scenarios and compiling a number of observed and modeled climate variables to assess the trends and reliability of climate scenarios for Southern New England is the goal of the seminar.

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GEOL 2920Z. The Evolution of Lacustrine Ecosystems.

Investigates macro- and micro-evolutionary patterns and processes in lakes. Will look at both cyclical and directional processes and interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic forcing in ecology and evolution of lakes in the geologic record, including changes in carbon flow or controls on biotic diversity and species composition. Students will have the opportunity to work with data from fossil and modern lacustrine strata and develop their own analysis of long lacustrine records, including Fourier analysis based on cores, outcrops, and geophysical logs that reveal Milankovitch cyclicity. A field component includes examination of Triassic and Jurassic Newark Supergroup of eastern North America.

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GEOL 2970. Preliminary Examination Preparation.

For graduate students who have met the tuition requirement and are paying the registration fee to continue active enrollment while preparing for a preliminary examination.

Fall GEOL2970 S01 14735 Arranged 'To Be Arranged'
Spr GEOL2970 S01 23829 Arranged 'To Be Arranged'
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GEOL 2980. Research in Geological Sciences.

Section numbers vary by instructor. Please check Banner for the correct section number and CRN to use when registering for this course. Enrollment is restricted to graduate students only.

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GEOL 2990. Thesis Preparation.

For graduate students who have met the tuition requirements and are paying the registration fee to continue active enrollment while preparing a thesis.

Fall GEOL2990 S01 14736 Arranged 'To Be Arranged'
Spr GEOL2990 S01 23830 Arranged 'To Be Arranged'

Chair

Greg Hirth

Professor

Reid F. Cooper
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Karen M. Fischer
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Donald W. Forsyth
James Manning Professor of Earth, Environmental, and Planetary Science

Bruno J. Giletti
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

L. Peter Gromet
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

James W. Head
Louis and Elizabeth Scherck Distinguished Professor of the Geological Sciences

Timothy D. Herbert
Henry L. Doherty Professor of Oceanography

John F. Hermance
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Paul C. Hess
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Greg Hirth
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Yongsong Huang
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Yan Liang
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Amanda Lynch
Sloan Lindemann and George Lindemann, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Environmental Studies

John F. Mustard
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences; Professor of Environmental Studies

Edgar M. Parmentier
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Carle M. Pieters
Professor Emerita of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Warren L. Prell
Henry L. Doherty Professor Emeritus of Oceanography

Malcolm J. Rutherford
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Alberto Saal
Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Peter H. Schultz
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Jan Tullis
Professor Emerita of Geological Sciences

Terry E. Tullis
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Thompson Webb III
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Richard A. Yund
Professor Emeritus of Geological Sciences

Visiting Professor

Alexander T. Bazilevskiy
Visiting Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

David R. Scott
Visiting Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Visiting Professor Research

Paul C. M. Raterron
Visiting Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences (Research)

Associate Professor

Baylor Fox-Kemper
Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Meredith K. Hastings
Associate Professor of Environment and Society and Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Stephen Parman
Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

James M. Russell
Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Associate Professor Research

Steven C. Clemens
Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences (Research)

Associate Professor MBL

Linda Amaral Zettler
Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences (MBL)

Assistant Professor

Colleen A. Dalton
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Christian Huber
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Brandon C. Johnson
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Jung-Eun Lee
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Ralph E. Milliken
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Assistant Professor MBL

Jianwu Tang
Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences (MBL)

Lecturer

David W. Murray
Lecturer in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Adjunct Professor

Mark A. Altabet
Adjunct Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Adjunct Associate Professor

Maureen H. Conte
Adjunct Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Kira T. Lawrence
Adjunct Associate Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Adjunct Assistant Professor Research

Alexandria V. Johnson
Adjunct Assistant Professor of Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences (Research)

Adjunct Lecturer

Lynn Carlson
Adjunct Lecturer in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Visiting Scholar

Mikhail A. Ivanov
Visiting Scholar in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Sarah J. Ivory
Visiting Scholar in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Rencheng Li
Visiting Scholar in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Joseph B. Walsh
Visiting Scholar in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Visiting Scientist

Leah C. Cheek
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Kerri L. Donaldson Hanna
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Caleb I. Fassett
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Brendan Hermalyn
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Peter J. Isaacson
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Yuya Sakai
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Li Wang
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Lionel Wilson
Visiting Scientist in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Senior Research Associate

Sandra M. Wiseman
Senior Research Associate in Earth, Environmental and Planetary Sciences

Geological Sciences

Geological science involves the study of the Earth (and other planetary bodies), including their compositions and histories and the physical chemical and biological processes that shape them. The geosciences are highly interdisciplinary, thus students must take some supporting math and science courses. Geoscience courses emphasize a process-oriented approach, with hands-on experiences in labs and on field trips. There is a strong emphasis on active and collaborative learning, and on practice in communication. Students may choose an AB (total of 13 courses) or an ScB (19 total courses, including one semester of research). There are many opportunities for students to do research work (typically in paid positions) during the academic year or in the summer, in areas such as deformation and properties of geological materials, deciphering the geologic history of some local rocks, or analysis of planetary images.

Standard program for the A.B. degree

This program provides a broad introduction to the geological sciences. Recommended for students seeking a liberal education and a general understanding of Earth processes and Earth history. Especially attractive for double concentrations, such as geology and economics as a career path to law or business, or geology and English as a career path to journalism or technical writing.

Basic supporting science courses
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure (or advanced placement)1
Select three of the following:3
Introductory Calculus, Part I
Introductory Calculus, Part II (or more advanced)
Foundations of Mechanics
Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics (or more advanced)
Introduction to Engineering
Dynamics and Vibrations (or more advanced)
The Foundation of Living Systems (or more advanced)
Concentration courses
GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0230Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes1
GEOL 0240Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet1
Select two of the following:2
Mineralogy
Petrology
Structural Geology
Select two of the following:2
Fossil Record
Estuarine Oceanography
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Weather and Climate
Environmental Geochemistry
A field course
Select two additional courses from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval from the departmental concentration advisor.2
Total Credits13

Standard program for the Sc.B. degree

This program is recommended for students interested in graduate study and careers in the geosciences and related fields.

Basic supporting science courses
Select two courses in mathematics at the level of:2
Introductory Calculus, Part I
Introductory Calculus, Part II
or another more advanced math or statistics course
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure (or advanced placement)1
Select one of the following Series:2
Foundations of Mechanics
and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics (or more advanced) 1
Introduction to Engineering
and Dynamics and Vibrations (or more advanced)
Concentration courses
GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0230Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes1
GEOL 0240Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet1
GEOL 0310Fossil Record1
GEOL 1240Stratigraphy and Sedimentation1
GEOL 1410Mineralogy1
GEOL 1420Petrology1
GEOL 1450Structural Geology1
A field course1
Select four courses from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval from the departmental concentration advisor.4
GEOL 1970Individual Study of Geologic Problems (Senior Research Thesis)1
Total Credits19
1

Advanced placement may be substituted for the first semester of physics.

Geology-Biology

Geology-Biology involves study of the interactions of the Earth and its hydrosphere and atmosphere with the great diversity of life forms, and how they have evolved and influenced one another over the entire history of the Earth. Many courses emphasize climate and biogeochemistry; this concentration is a good one for students interested in quantitative approaches to environmental science. Students take a basic suite of geoscience courses and at least 4 bio courses of their choosing, plus some supporting math and science courses; the AB degree requires a total of 14 courses and the ScB degree requires a total of 19, including one semester of research. There is a strong emphasis on active and collaborative learning, and on practice in communication. There are many opportunities for students to do research work (typically in paid positions) during the academic year or in the summer, in areas such as determining the history of climate change during the recent ice age, investigating the causes of major extinctions, and using paleoenvironmental records to determine the vulnerability of different regions of the globe to droughts and other processes that strongly affect society.

Standard program for the A.B. degree

This program provides a broad introduction to the geologic and biologic processes that shape the Earth and our environment. It is recommended for students seeking a liberal education and a general understanding of Earth processes, including the evolution of climate and the environment, global environmental change and Earth history. The program prepares students for careers in environmental science, geology, ecology, oceanography, and global change.

Basic supporting science courses
BIOL 0200The Foundation of Living Systems (or more advanced)1
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure (or advanced placement)1
Select two courses in mathematics and/or physics at the level of:2
Introductory Calculus, Part I (or more advanced)
Foundations of Mechanics (or more advanced)
Introduction to Engineering (or more advanced, or courses in data analysis and statistics)
Concentration courses
GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0230Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes1
GEOL 0240Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet1
GEOL 1240Stratigraphy and Sedimentation1
Select three Biology courses from the following:3
Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity
Invertebrate Zoology
Microbes in the Environment
Principles of Ecology
The Evolution of Plant Diversity
Inquiry in Plant Biology: Analysis of Plant Growth, Reproduction and Adaptive Responses
Evolutionary Biology
Conservation Biology
Terrestrial Biogeochemistry and the Functioning of Ecosystems
Plant Physiological Ecology
Comparative Biology of the Vertebrates
Three geological sciences courses from the following:3
Foundations of Physical Hydrology
Estuarine Oceanography
Paleoceanography
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
Limnology: The Study of Lakes
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Weather and Climate
Environmental Geochemistry
Environmental Stable Isotopes
Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics
Total Credits14

Standard program for the Sc.B. degree

This program is recommended for students interested in graduate study and careers in the Earth, Environmental, or Biological Sciences. It is relevant for students interested in environmental science, paleoclimate, Earth systems science, biogeochemistry, oceanography, or paleobiology.

Five basic supporting science courses
BIOL 0200The Foundation of Living Systems (or more advanced)1
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure (or advanced placement)1
PHYS 0050Foundations of Mechanics (or more advanced)1
or ENGN 0030 Introduction to Engineering
Select two courses in mathematics at the level of:2
Introductory Calculus, Part I
Introductory Calculus, Part II (or more advanced, or advanced courses in data analysis)
Fourteen (14) concentration courses
GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0230Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes1
GEOL 0240Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet1
GEOL 1240Stratigraphy and Sedimentation1
Three biology courses from the following:3
Vertebrate Evolution and Diversity
Invertebrate Zoology
Microbes in the Environment
Principles of Ecology
The Evolution of Plant Diversity
Inquiry in Plant Biology: Analysis of Plant Growth, Reproduction and Adaptive Responses
Evolutionary Biology
Conservation Biology
Terrestrial Biogeochemistry and the Functioning of Ecosystems
Plant Physiological Ecology
Comparative Biology of the Vertebrates
Three geological sciences courses from the following:3
Foundations of Physical Hydrology
Estuarine Oceanography
Paleoceanography
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
Limnology: The Study of Lakes
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Weather and Climate
Environmental Geochemistry
Environmental Stable Isotopes
Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics
Three additional courses from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval from the concentration advisor3
GEOL 1970Individual Study of Geologic Problems (Senior Research Thesis)1
Total Credits19

Geology-Chemistry

Geochemistry involves two different emphases. Low-temperature geochemistry involves study of chemical and biochemical processes on and near Earth’s surface, including land, oceans and freshwater bodies, and how the geochemical record reflects climate conditions. High-temperature geochemistry includes study of formation and evolution of the Earth and other planets, magma formation and properties, volcanic activity, and metamorphism. The AB degree requires a total of 14 courses, including 5 geoscience courses and 4 chemistry courses, and a few supporting math and physics courses. The ScB degree requires a total of 20 courses, including 7 geoscience courses and 4 chemistry courses, either with an organic or an inorganic focus, plus some supporting math and physics courses and one research course. Geoscience courses emphasize a process-oriented approach, with hands-on experiences in labs and on field trips. There is a strong emphasis on active and collaborative learning, and on practice in communication. There are many opportunities for students to do research work for pay during the academic year or in the summer, in areas such as experimental studies of magma formation, and analyzing lunar rock samples for water content.

Standard program for the A.B. degree

Recommended for students seeking a liberal education and interested in applying physical and chemical principles toward an understanding of Earth history, Earth processes, and environmental and resource issues.

Basic supporting science courses
Select two courses in mathematics at the level of:2
Introductory Calculus, Part I (or more advanced)
Introductory Calculus, Part II (or more advanced)
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure1
PHYS 0050Foundations of Mechanics (or a more advanced course, or advanced placement.)1
or ENGN 0030 Introduction to Engineering
Concentration courses
GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0230Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes1
GEOL 0240Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet1
Three additional chemistry courses3
Select one of the following Series:2
Mineralogy
and Petrology
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
and Environmental Geochemistry
Two additional courses from upper level geological sciences, math, or supporting sciences with approval from the department concentration advisor. 2
Total Credits14

Standard program for the Sc.B. degree

This program is recommended for students interested in graduate study and careers in geochemistry and related fields.

Basic Supporting Science Courses:
Select two courses in mathematics at the level of:2
Introductory Calculus, Part I (or more advanced)
Introductory Calculus, Part II (or more advanced)
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure1
Select one of the following series:2
Foundations of Mechanics
and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics 1
Introduction to Engineering
and Dynamics and Vibrations
or a more advanced course
Concentration Courses:
Either the geochemistry/inorganic option or the geochemistry/organic option:10
Geochemistry/Inorganic Option:
Physical Processes in Geology
Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes
Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
Environmental Geochemistry
Mineralogy
Petrology
Plus one from:
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Structural Geology
Three from:
Organic Chemistry
Inorganic Chemistry
Advanced Inorganic Chemistry
Physical Chemistry: Quantum Chemistry
Physical Chemistry: Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics
Geochemistry/Organic Option:
Physical Processes in Geology
Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes
Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
Environmental Geochemistry
Mineralogy
Plus one from:
Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Environmental Stable Isotopes
Three Chemistry courses:
Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry
Plus one additional chemistry course
Four additional courses from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval of the departmental concentration advisor4
GEOL 1970Individual Study of Geologic Problems1
Total Credits20
1

Advanced placement may be substituted for the first semester of physics.

Geology-Physics/Mathematics

Geophysics involves the application of physics and mathematics to the study of processes that operate on and within the Earth and other planets, over short and long timescales. The AB degree requires a total of 14 courses, including 6 geoscience courses, 3 physics or engineering courses, and 3 math and applied math courses. The ScB degree requires a total of 20 courses, including 8 geoscience courses, 4 physics or engineering courses, and 3 math and applied courses; students can choose courses from both solid Earth geophysics and climate science themes. Geoscience courses emphasize an analytical and process-oriented approach, with hands-on experiences in labs and on field trips. Active and collaborative learning is encouraged, as is practice in written and oral communication. There are many opportunities for students to engage in research (typically in paid positions) during the academic year or in the summer, in areas such as analysis of seismic waves in subduction zones, theoretical modeling of convection in the Earth’s mantle, modeling the effects of the warming climate in the oceans and atmosphere, and remote sensing of how climate change affects vegetation.

Standard program for the A.B. degree

Recommended for students seeking a liberal education and interested in applying physical and mathematical principles toward an understanding of the processes affecting planets, Earth, and the environment and how they are modeled.  Some course requirements may be flexible based on consultation with concentration advisor.

GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 0250Computational Approaches to Modelling and Quantitative Analysis in Natural Sciences: An Introduction1
or GEOL 0350 Mathematical Methods of Fluid and Solid Geophysics and Geology
Four theme courses (choose either the Solid Earth Geophysics Theme or the Climate Science Theme)4
Solid Earth Geophysics Theme
Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes (solid Earth geophysics theme)
Solid Earth Geophysics (solid Earth geophysics theme)
And select two of the following:
Mineralogy (solid Earth geophysics theme)
Petrology
Structural Geology (solid Earth geophysics theme)
Continuum Physics of the Solid Earth (solid Earth geophysics theme)
Climate Science Theme
Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet (climate science theme)
Weather and Climate (climate science theme)
And select two from the following:
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles (climate science theme)
Global Water Cycle (climate science theme)
Principles of Planetary Climate (climate science theme)
Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics (climate science theme))
GEOL 1520
Ocean Circulation and Climate
Choose one of the following: 1
Foundations of Mechanics
Analytical Mechanics
Dynamics and Vibrations
Choose one of the following: 1
Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics
Mechanics of Solids and Structures
Fluid Mechanics 1
Choose one of the following: 1
Electricity and Magnetism
Advanced Classical Mechanics
Computational Physics
Electricity and Magnetism
Fluid Mechanics 1,2
Advanced Engineering Mechanics
GEOL 1820
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Three courses in Mathematics, including: 3
Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II
Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure (or advanced placement)1
One additional course from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval from the departmental concentration advisor. 31
Total Credits14
1

 One course cannot be used to satisfy two requirements.

2

ENGN 0810 or GEOL 1820 are recommended for those completing the Climate Science theme. 

3

In addition to courses listed elsewhere, in the Geology-Physics/Math concentrations, these courses are of particular relevance: GEOL 0810, GEOL 1320, GEOL 1710, GEOL 1960A.

Standard program for the Sc.B. degree

This program is recommended for students interested in graduate study and careers in geophysics, climate science and related fields.  Students will be prepared to understand and use models, make measurements, and use theories of the processes studied in these fields.  Some course requirements may be flexible based on consultation with concentration advisor.

GEOL 0220Physical Processes in Geology1
GEOL 1430Principles of Planetary Climate1
GEOL 1610Solid Earth Geophysics1
GEOL 0250Computational Approaches to Modelling and Quantitative Analysis in Natural Sciences: An Introduction1
or GEOL 0350 Mathematical Methods of Fluid and Solid Geophysics and Geology
Five theme courses (choose either the Solid Earth Geophysics theme or the Climate Science Theme):5
Solid Earth Geophysics Theme
Geochemistry: Earth and Planetary Materials and Processes
Structural Geology
Continuum Physics of the Solid Earth
And choose two from the following:
Mineralogy
Petrology
Global Tectonics
Earthquake Seismology (Climate Science Theme)
Or a field course
Climate Science Theme
Earth: Evolution of a Habitable Planet
Choose one:
Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics
GEOL 1520
Ocean Circulation and Climate
And choose three from the following: 1
Ocean Biogeochemical Cycles
Global Water Cycle
Global Environmental Remote Sensing
Introduction to Atmospheric Dynamics
GEOL 1520
Ocean Circulation and Climate
Or a field or sea course
PHYS 0050Foundations of Mechanics1
or PHYS 0070 Analytical Mechanics
or ENGN 0040 Dynamics and Vibrations
PHYS 0060Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics1
or ENGN 0310 Mechanics of Solids and Structures
or ENGN 0810 Fluid Mechanics
Select two of the following: 1,22
Electricity and Magnetism
Advanced Classical Mechanics
Computational Physics
Electricity and Magnetism
Fluid Mechanics
Advanced Engineering Mechanics
GEOL 1820
Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
Three courses in mathematics including3
Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II
Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II
Two additional courses from upper level geological sciences, mathematics, or supporting sciences with approval from the departmental concentration advisor. 32
CHEM 0330Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure1
GEOL 1970Individual Study of Geologic Problems1
Total Credits20
1

 One course cannot be used to satisfy two requirements

2

ENGN 0810 or GEOL 1820 are recommended for those completing the Climate Science theme.

3

In addition to courses listed elsewhere, in the Geology-Physics/Math concentrations, these courses are of particular relevance: GEOL 0810, GEOL 1320, GEOL 1710, GEOL 1960A.

Geological Sciences

The department of Geological Sciences offers a graduate program leading to the Doctor of Philosphy (Ph.D.) degree.

For more information on admission and program requirements, please visit the following website:

http://www.brown.edu/academics/gradschool/programs/geological-sciences