Physics is the scientific study of the fundamental principles governing the behavior of matter and the interaction of matter and energy. Mathematics is used to describe fundamental physical principles, the behavior of matter, and the interactions of matter and energy. As the most fundamental of sciences, physics provides a foundation for other scientific fields as well as the underpinnings of modern technology. The Physics department is unique because of the breadth of its faculty expertise and research, and the relatively intimate size of its classes above the introductory level. Physics concentrators may choose to pursue either the A.B. or the more intensive Sc.B. degree. Course work on either path covers a broad base of topics (for example, electricity and magnetism, classical and quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics). The Sc.B. degree requires additional advanced topics as well as a senior thesis project.

### Standard concentration for the A.B. degree

Select one of the following Series: | 2 | |

Analytical Mechanics and Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | ||

Basic Physics and Basic Physics | ||

Foundations of Mechanics and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | ||

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 0560 | Experiments in Modern Physics | 1 |

PHYS 1410 | Quantum Mechanics A | 1 |

PHYS 1530 | Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | 1 |

One additional 1000-level course or a mathematics course beyond the introductory level. | 1 | |

Total Credits | 8 |

### Standard program for the Sc.B. degree

Prerequisites: | ||

Select one of the following series: | 2 | |

Analytical Mechanics and Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | ||

Foundations of Mechanics and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | ||

Select one of the following: | 1 | |

Advanced Placement Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | ||

Program: | ||

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 0560 | Experiments in Modern Physics | 1 |

PHYS 1410 | Quantum Mechanics A | 1 |

PHYS 1420 | Quantum Mechanics B | 1 |

PHYS 1510 | Advanced Electromagnetic Theory | 1 |

PHYS 1530 | Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 1560 | Modern Physics Laboratory | 1 |

PHYS 1980 | Undergraduate Research in Physics | 1 |

One additional 1000 or 2000 level Physics course or upper level course in related fields of science chosen by the student with agreement of his or her advisor. | 1 | |

Four Mathematics courses beyond MATH 0190 or 0090, 0100 including choices from Applied Mathematics ^{1} | 4 | |

PHYS 1990 | Senior Conference Course ^{2} | 1 |

Total Credits | 18 |

^{1} | In addition, courses in computer programming are recommended. |

^{2} | A senior thesis is required. This is to be prepared in connection with PHYS 1990 under the direction of a faculty supervisor. The topic may be in a related department or of interdisciplinary nature. In any event, a dissertation must be submitted. |

### Honors

Candidates for honors in physics will be expected to pursue a more rigorous and extensive program than those merely concentrating in the subject. In addition they will be required to begin an honors thesis during the seventh semester and to complete it (as part of PHYS 1990) during the eighth semester. Honors candidates are also expected to take a special oral examination on the thesis at the end of the eighth semester. Further details about the program may be obtained from the chair of the department or the departmental honors advisor.

### Astrophysics Track for the Sc.B. degree

Prerequisites: | ||

Select one of the following Series: | 2 | |

Analytical Mechanics and Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | ||

Foundations of Mechanics and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | ||

PHYS 0270 | Introduction to Astronomy | 1 |

Select one of the following Series: | 2 | |

Advanced Placement Calculus and Intermediate Calculus | ||

Advanced Placement Calculus (Physics/Engineering) and Intermediate Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | ||

Honors Calculus (or equivalent) | ||

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

Program: | ||

MATH 0520 | Linear Algebra | 1 |

or MATH 0540 | Honors Linear Algebra | |

or PHYS 0720 | Methods of Mathematical Physics | |

Select one of the following Math courses: | 1 | |

Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II | ||

Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II | ||

Applied Ordinary Differential Equations | ||

Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II | ||

Ordinary Differential Equations | ||

Partial Differential Equations | ||

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 0560 | Experiments in Modern Physics | 1 |

PHYS 1410 | Quantum Mechanics A | 1 |

PHYS 1530 | Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | 1 |

Three of the following: | 3 | |

Introduction to General Relativity | ||

Stellar Structure and the Interstellar Medium | ||

Extragalactic Astronomy and High-Energy Astrophysics | ||

Introduction to Cosmology | ||

Two additonal 1000- or 2000-level courses in physics or a related field which are not listed as requirements. | 2 | |

PHYS 1990 | Senior Conference Course ^{1} | 1 |

Total Credits | 18 |

^{1} | A senior thesis is required. This is to be prepared in connection with under the direction of a faculty supervisor. The topic may be in a related department or of interdisciplinary nature. In any event, a dissertation must be submitted. |

### Biological Physics Track for the Sc.B. degree

Foundations of Physics | ||

PHYS 0070 | Analytical Mechanics | 1 |

or PHYS 0050 | Foundations of Mechanics | |

or ENGN 0040 | Dynamics and Vibrations | |

PHYS 0160 | Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | 1 |

or PHYS 0060 | Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | |

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 1410 | Quantum Mechanics A | 1 |

PHYS 1530 | Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | 1 |

Select one of the following Series: ^{1} | 1-2 | |

Series A | ||

Methods of Mathematical Physics | ||

Series B | ||

Select one of the following: | ||

Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II | ||

Applied Ordinary Differential Equations | ||

Ordinary Differential Equations | ||

And select one of the following: | ||

Intermediate Calculus | ||

Intermediate Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | ||

Honors Calculus | ||

Linear Algebra | ||

Honors Linear Algebra | ||

Basic Biology and Chemistry | ||

BIOL 0200 | The Foundation of Living Systems (or placement out of BIOL 0200) | 1 |

BIOL 0500 | Cell and Molecular Biology | 1 |

CHEM 0330 | Equilibrium, Rate, and Structure | 1 |

Advanced Biophysical Topics and Techniques | ||

PHYS 1610 | Biological Physics | 1 |

PHYS 1990 | Senior Conference Course | 1 |

Elective Courses (four chosen from the following list, with at least two 1000-level courses, or additional courses approved by the concentration advisor: | 4 | |

Methods of Applied Mathematics I, II | ||

Mathematical Methods in the Brain Sciences | ||

Essential Statistics | ||

Quantitative Models of Biological Systems | ||

Inference in Genomics and Molecular Biology | ||

Introductory Biochemistry | ||

Genetics | ||

Biology of the Eukaryotic Cell | ||

Protein Biophysics and Structure | ||

Advanced Biochemistry | ||

Techniques in Pathobiology | ||

Organic Chemistry | ||

Organic Chemistry | ||

Introductory Calculus, Part I | ||

Advanced Placement Calculus | ||

Advanced Placement Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | ||

Probability | ||

Mathematical Statistics | ||

Experiments in Modern Physics | ||

Advanced Electromagnetic Theory | ||

Modern Physics Laboratory | ||

Selected Topics in Molecular Biophysics | ||

PHYS 1990 | Senior Conference Course ^{2} | 1 |

Total Credits | 17-18 |

^{1} | Select Series A alone or two from Series B as indicated. |

^{2} | A senior thesis is required. This is to be prepared in connection with under the direction of a faculty supervisor. The topic may be in a related department or of interdisciplinary nature. In any event, a dissertation must be submitted. |

### Mathematical Physics Track for the A.B. degree

Prerequisites: | ||

MATH 0090 | Introductory Calculus, Part I | 1 |

or MATH 0100 | Introductory Calculus, Part II | |

or MATH 0190 | Advanced Placement Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | |

PHYS 0050 | Foundations of Mechanics | 1 |

or PHYS 0070 | Analytical Mechanics | |

Mathematics Courses ^{1} | ||

MATH 0180 | Intermediate Calculus | 1 |

or MATH 0200 | Intermediate Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | |

or MATH 0350 | Honors Calculus | |

MATH 0520 | Linear Algebra | 1 |

or MATH 0540 | Honors Linear Algebra | |

MATH 1110 | Ordinary Differential Equations | 1 |

Select at least one of the following: | 1 | |

Differential Geometry | ||

Partial Differential Equations | ||

Probability | ||

Physics Courses ^{1} | ||

PHYS 0060 | Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | 1 |

or PHYS 0160 | Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | |

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 0560 | Experiments in Modern Physics | 1 |

Select at least two of the following: | 2 | |

Quantum Mechanics A | ||

Quantum Mechanics B | ||

Advanced Electromagnetic Theory | ||

Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | ||

Modern Physics Laboratory | ||

Total Credits | 12 |

^{1} | Concentrators are required to take at least one course in mathematics and one in physics in each of their last two semesters. |

### Mathematical Physics Track for the Sc.B. degree

Prerequisites: | ||

Select one of the following series: | 2 | |

Analytical Mechanics and Introduction to Relativity and Quantum Physics | ||

Foundations of Mechanics and Foundations of Electromagnetism and Modern Physics | ||

Select one of the following: | 1-2 | |

Advanced Placement Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | ||

Introductory Calculus, Part I and Introductory Calculus, Part II | ||

Required courses: | ||

PHYS 0470 | Electricity and Magnetism | 1 |

PHYS 0500 | Advanced Classical Mechanics | 1 |

PHYS 0560 | Experiments in Modern Physics | 1 |

PHYS 1410 | Quantum Mechanics A | 1 |

PHYS 1530 | Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics | 1 |

MATH 0180 & MATH 0200 | Intermediate Calculus and Intermediate Calculus (Physics/Engineering) | 1-2 |

or MATH 0350 | Honors Calculus | |

MATH 0520 | Linear Algebra | 1 |

or MATH 0540 | Honors Linear Algebra | |

MATH 1530 | Abstract Algebra | 1 |

Four additional 1000 or 2000 level Physics courses | 4 | |

Two additional 1000 or 2000 level Math courses | 2 | |

PHYS 1990 | Senior Conference Course ^{1} | 1 |

Total Credits | 18-20 |

^{1} | A senior thesis is required. This is to be prepared in connection with under the direction of a faculty supervisor. |